Sand largely or majorly affects drilling mud. Therefore,
knowledge of sand content is very important and critical in Petroleum
Engineering. This is necessary because when sand is not properly evaluated in a
drilling mud sample it can lead to unending damages both to the mud and the
formation as well. Major areas usually affected during drilling due to
percentage composition of sand in the sample are: deposition of deep filter
cakes and damage to drilling equipment leading to excessive corrosion, etc.
TABLE OF CONTENT
SAMPLE USED FOR THE EXPERIMENT
The basic aim of the experiment is to determine the
percentage composition of sand in a sample of drilling fluid. For this
experiment the instrument used is called the Sand Content Kit, which contains
the measuring tube, wash bottle, combined funnel with screen mesh. The three
basic samples used are Water, Sand and Bentonite. They are mixed together and
using the sand content kit the percentage composition of sand is determined.
Sand Content Kit. It contains the following:
tube: This has two levels, which is the mud level and water level. Used for
measuring mud and water
funnel with screen mesh: this is used to conduct already mixed drilling fluid
it prevents any sand that can cause damage from entering into the tube
bottle: this is used to add water to the measuring tube and sieve and it also helps in washing the sand
content left in the measuring tube.
SAMPLES USED FOR THE EXPERIMENT
35g of bentonite
350ml of water
10g of Barite
measured 400ml of water in the measuring cylinder.
added 25g of bentonite and 10 g of sand into the mixing cup alongside my
mixed them with the electric mixer until I had smooth mud.
poured the mixture into the measuring tube until it reached the mud mark.
the wash bottle, I filled the remaining space with water to the watermark.
shook both vigorously until everything is mixed together.
poured the mixture into the sieve and discarded the filtrate.
the wash bottle, I rinsed the measuring tube until it was clean.
filtering the mud, I inverted the screen with a funnel at the bottom.
I washed the sand back into the measuring tube.
allowed the particles to settle before taking my reading.
During the experiment I ensured the
a. I avoided error due to parallax while
taking readings from the measuring tube and cylinder.
b. I ensured not to spill the mixed sample
to enable me get accurate measurement.
c. I ensured the sand particles settled
before taking my percentage composition of sand.
entire experiment I cleaned my work space to ensure laboratory cleanliness.
% COMPOSITION OF SAND IN SAMPLE
In conclusion, the sand content of any drilling fluid should always
be checked at intervals during drilling operation. The sand content should be
preferably low so as not to cause much damage to the drilling equipment and the
PET 315 NOTES BY DR. ENGR. E.E.OKORO
Mud Laboratory Manual, Department of Petroleum Engineering,