Attaining the lowest income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, are

Attaining
of universal primary education is most importantly the first step for gaining
future skills, jobs opportunities and lifelong development skills. The united
nation consisting of 191 member countries established the Millennium
Development Goals. In
the Millennium Development Goals (MDG 2) is that all countries should try their
best to achieve universal primary education by 2015. Most of these countries
have made good effort toward achieving this goal by improving access to
schools. Primary school enrollment rates have improved significantly in most developing
countries since the year 2000 when the Millennium
Development Goals were introduced. However, still there were many countries that did not
produced effective result achieving the universal primary education, especially
the lowest income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, are far from reaching the
goal of universal education.

 Many scholars blame
child labor as an enormous barrier to achieving universal primary education
because poor families need their children to work for them, which prevent these
children from attending the school and getting primary education. Many
economists believe that if the school enrollment will increase, then engagement
in child labor will be decreased globally but most importantly it will be
reduced in low income countries and middle-income developing
countries, where child labor is seen as a big barrier in the way of getting
universal primary education. The Children who belong to poor and poverty
stricken households in low-income and middle-income countries, these children
usually contribute to support their family’s welfare by working outside the
home or working for the family so that the family members get basic food,
shelter and clothing facilities or they have to take and managing the household
responsibilities while parents are away or work somewhere else. In this current
modern era there are plentiful arguments going on about the child labor uncertain
definition and the age of children in which children should be legally
permitted or allowed to work. There are many definitions of child labor which
include only paid work done outside the home like market work or any economic
work, whereas some other definitions include the unpaid work which children do,
for example family work, and excessive or extra household burden and duties
because each form of these type of work may be related to child schooling,
health, and well-being. According to a report by United Nation International
Children Emergency Fund estimated in 2007 that 1children out of every 6
children aged from 5–14 was involved in one or other way in some sort of child
labor activities. Many scholar and economist believed that children who are
contributing to their family and engaging in child labor activities are widely
believed to have a strong negative impact on schooling.  There exists Significant negative relations who
are resulted between each form of these child labor and school enrollments, but
relations were more consistent for family work and household duties than working
outside the home.

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Child labor is one of basic violation of human rights and it
is worst case scenario for any country throughout the whole world. Those
children who are very small in age and it is an ideal time for them to go to
school and get primary education but instead of going to school, these children
are working in worse condition which is unhygienic
forms of labour in different manufacturing factories. They are sadly doing hazardous work
in abusive environment where they are working their foot to mouth in all day to
just earn small amount of money to support the basic needs of their family. These
Children’s who are working outside their home has received a lot of attentions
all over the world. Working outside the home usually consists of employment in
agriculture fields and farms, services sector, factories, industries and making
bricks ,hotels, workshops, shops, construction sites and pulling
rickshaws etc. and
 it can be both paid or unpaid but mostly
if paid then very little wage or amount paid. Household work and duties include
childcare, cleaning of house, cooking of food, washing clothes (laundry),
shopping, fetching water and wood for cooking, and home maintenance. Excessive,
extra burden of household duties are considered a “hidden” form of child labor
because they may interfere with schooling and barrier to their primary
education, and it often goes unreported.

Many scholars point of view about child labor is that child
labor is one main barrier to achieving universal primary education because poor
families need their children to do work because poor family have no enough
money to feed their children then how is it possible for them to send their
children to go school schools and get universal education because if the
children won’t work then they hardly can meet their basic need of food,
clothing and shelter, this maybe because parents are either unemployed or if
employed then they are earning very less wage which is not enough for them to
feed their family, so these poor
households Children in low- and middle-income countries are usually
contributing to their family’s welfare by working outside the home or for the
family or by managing household responsibilities while parents working, this is the main reason which maybe
preventing the children from attending school. So in this type of scenario the
best medicine to overcome child labor is to divert their mind towards
education. Because Just as school enrollment has increased, the engagement in
child labor has decreased globally.

Poor schooling system
and high poverty in developing countries are preceded by increase in Child
labour. One of the primary causes of child labour is the lack of schools and
poverty. According to World Bank report on child labor issue state that between
1960 and 2003, the incidence of child labour reduced from 25% to 10% but the number
of child laborers still remains high all over the world. The International Labor
Organization (ILO) and UNICEF have estimated that around168 millions children
in the age of seven years to fourteen years (7-14) children groups  were engaged in child labour in the year 2013.
The countries which were included in this study were all low- and middle-income
developing countries. The important thing to look here is that if children are
working in home or working outside, are they really less likely to be enrolled
in school? Many studies regarding this of some individual countries report shows
that the children who are working in home or outside as a child labor they are
less likely to be enrolled in school there is positive relation between child
labor and enrollment in schools. So the children who are working as child
labor, they are mostly not going to schools.

Now in the ideal world, primary education is publically
financed by government and all children have availability to go and attend
school regardless of whether their parents have money or affordability or
willingness to send their children and to pay them. Not attending the school
has enormous effect in the life of these vulnerable children because when
children won’t go to school to acquire the basic knowledge and skills to make
their future productive to get better opportunities in life, great jobs and
multidimensional educated career to come out of vicious circle of poverty and
becoming responsible member of their society. No any children should be forced
to choose enormous burden of work over a potentially life-changing quality
education.  The School buildings, books
and the instructors are a great first basic step toward ending the child labor
in any society or community. Now, the main thing we need here is to make learning
safe, not just for child laborers, but for all children.

 The cost of educating the children is far
outweighed by the cost of not educating them. These children
who are not going to schools now then when they will grew up and become adults,
they will be lacking basic skills and they will have greater difficulty in finding
well-paying jobs, if they can’t find good paying jobs then they will not be coming
out of poverty and can’t have a joyful and luxurious life. Not only boys but
also it should be ensured that education for girls should be promoted with
great effect because there are huge positive impacts and social benefits:
incomes of girls will be higher and maternal and infant mortality rates will be
lower for educated women, beside this educated women have good knowledge and
they may have more personal freedom in making different decisions and choices
for themselves and for their families.

There are many elements
which are responsible for the child labour which usually includes the poverty
and illiteracy of the parents of the child and the cultural values of the
children society where he is living and the type of the family as well. The
child has no any basic access to meaningful quality education or those children
who have very poor economic and social circumstances in their family. Eliminating
or combating the child labor need many hard works and coordination’s for a very
sustainable periods within the government, Stakeholder and other various
community based organizations, NGOs. These institutions should mutually work
together in order to promote quality education in each and every community so
that every children have access to good free quality education. It is extremely an
important thing
that the mindsets
and attitudes of the people should change so that they can allow their children to go to school and
employing adults instead of these children, because education is the only
successful method which can eliminate the child labour from any society or community. Maintenance of good structure of
schools with quality of teachers and good facilities should be provided in all
public schools which should attract all children to enroll in the schools, NGOs
should make education awareness program in every community to give knowledge to
the children and their parents about education so that parents send their
children to schools. The return on education is huge, these children if get
enrolled in schools with the help of good learning environment and free
education system they will graduate and can get pretty good jobs in market and
through skills and development they can easily come out of poverty and their
poor family can live a very healthy and comfortable life.

Children are known as the future of every economy and
country if these children have access to free quality education system then
these children in future can contribute a lot for the economy and make huge
positive impact by contributing to economy and can generate a lot hefty income
for themselves and their family members. So the government, stake holder and
private NGOs should focus on building schools in developing countries to reduce
child labor and increasing future income of the household with the help of
these children gaining quality education now and getting better and skillful
jobs in future and earning hefty income for their family. Government should
make sure that every child has access to free 16 years education. Thus through
building schools and good education system the children will admit in schools
and their enrollment will be higher and this practice in different communities
and societies can lead to reduce child labor and increase future income.
Returning to education is the remedy to all problems including child labor in
developing nations.