Community racial and ethnic groups, despite significant improvements in

 

 

 

 

 

Community awareness to educate individuals on how they can prevent
heart disease or cardiovascular diseases will be helpful to promote health. These
health promotion programs are available to public to serve as a tool to guide individuals
toward a healthy lifestyle and good quality of life. Health promotion programs will
only be successful with the community’s involvement and the government resources.
As part of the community and as a health care professional, I will involve myself
and my family to have a healthy life behavior by having a proper nutrition or healthy
eating habits and involving ourselves in fun physical activities to improve our
cardiovascular health.

Early identification and timely treatment of heart attack
or stroke may help reduce mortality and the lasting effects of acute events on
individuals who survive. There has been continuous
development of recommendations, guidelines, and policy proposals to address cardiovascular
health promotion and CVD prevention over the intervening decades. Their impact
in some high-income countries has been a marked reduction in CVD death rates.
However, the demographic shift toward increasing proportions of populations at
older ages (where rates are highest) has resulted in persistently high numbers
of CVD deaths with attendant disparities and costs (Labarthe & Dunbar, 2012).

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Studies and statistics showed that heart disease is the leading
cause of death and has a high cost in health in all racial and ethnic groups, despite significant improvements in treatment and prevention. The causes abovementioned can be prevented if we choose a
healthy behavior lifestyle to promote a good quality of life. Health promotion
programs have been implemented to prevent heart disease targeting different
populations based on age, race, gender and lifestyles. The mentioned health
promotion programs are available to everyone for utilization to prevent high cost
of health and health disparities.

Conclusion

 

 

Coordinated Approach to Child
Health (CATCH). It is based on the CDC Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child
model in which health education, school environment, and family/community
involvement work together to support youth in a healthy lifestyle (CATCH, 2017).
It is designed to promote physical activity and healthy food choices and to
prevent tobacco use in elementary school–aged children. This program is to
prevent obesity as early as young age targeting schools and communities. Study
results showed that as a result of the CATCH program, students in the
intervention schools significantly increased time spent in moderate to vigorous
physical activity within physical education classes (from 40% to 50%) and considerably decreased
their consumption of fat in school meals (from 39% to 32%) (Franks et al,
2007).

Million Hearts.  Research of Eapen et al, 2014 stated that the
compliance with quality measures for the Million Hearts initiative varies
widely and is notable for racial and gender disparities. Their findings
identify multiple opportunities to improve the quality of cardiovascular
prevention. According to CDC, Million Hearts approaches
its half-way mark, still need to accelerate that progress to reach the goal of
preventing one million heart attacks and strokes by 2017.

American Heart Association’s 2020
Impact Goal (Life’s Check/ Life’s Simple 7). This program
is to improve cardiovascular health for all Americans by 20%” and reducing
mortality from CVDs and stroke by 20% by 2020. AHA defined how to have an ideal
cardiovascular health by following the Life’s Simple 7 which gives good impact in
health and quality of life. The seven steps are: (10 stop smoking, (2) maintain
a healthy weight, (3) engage in regular physical activity, (4) eat a healthy
diet, (5) manage blood pressure, (6) take charge of cholesterol, and (7) keep
blood sugar or glucose at healthy level.

Sodium Reduction in Communities
Program (SRCP). It is administered by CDC’s Division for Heart Disease and Stroke
Prevention (DHDSP). Funding is awarded to communities across the country to
implement strategies to reduce sodium intake to no more than the recommended
maximum amount as defined in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
Because the majority of sodium consumed is already present in foods before
purchase or preparation, awardees work with entities that provide food service
and collaborate with food industry partners to increase the availability of
lower sodium foods (CDC, 2017). CDC awarded funding in 2013 to 10 communities
to start and test promising sodium reduction strategies. These communities
worked to reduce sodium intake by adding lower sodium options in worksites,
hospitals, distributive meal programs, early care and education settings, and
independent restaurants.

Tobacco Prevention program/
Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T) program. CDC is committed to reducing tobacco use in the population with an
ultimate goal of reducing the burden of tobacco-attributable disease. Although
CDC’s FY 1999 GPRA measures represented processes necessary for states to
establish tobacco control programs, CDC’s FY 2000 measures will include an
outcome indicator related to use of tobacco products. Specifically, CDC’s FY
2000 measure for tobacco seeks to reduce smoking among teenagers. The World
Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its
guidelines provide the foundation for countries to implement and manage tobacco
control. To help make this a reality, WHO introduced the MPOWER measures. These
measures are intended to assist in the country-level implementation of
effective interventions to reduce the demand for tobacco. A recent review of N-O-T program outcomes in different
locations included more than 6000 youths in 489 schools and showed that after 3
months, adolescents enrolled in N-O-T programs were twice as likely to have
quit smoking than adolescents in conventional smoking cessation programs (Horn
et al, 2005).

 

 

Health Promotion Programs

 

Health Factors. Another
factor is family history of CVD, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, stroke,
peripheral arterial disease and heart failure. Also, high blood cholesterol and
other lipids, metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and diabetes. The
prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with greater cumulative life-course
exposure to sedentary behavior and physical inactivity; screen time, including
television viewing; fast food intake; short sleep duration; and intake of
sugar-sweetened beverages. Each of these risk factors is reversible with
lifestyle change.

Harmful Use of Alcohol. Drinking too much alcohol can raise the levels of some fats in the
blood. The WHO estimates
that the harmful use of alcohol was responsible for 3.8% deaths and 4.5% of the
global burden of heart diseases in 2004. Excessive alcohol intake is associated
with increased risk for hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and
other forms of CVDs; however, evidence conducted in various populations suggests
that light to moderate intake of alcohol may reduce the risk of CHD.

Obesity. Overweight and obesity
predispose individuals to most major risk factors, including physical
inactivity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Obesity
decreased among those of higher socioeconomic status but increased among those
of lower socioeconomic status. In addition, the overall prevalence of severe
obesity in US youth continued to increase, especially among adolescent boys.

Physical Inactivity. Physical inactivity
may result in coronary heart disease through various physiological mechanisms,
which relate partly to detrimental effects on blood pressure, serum lipoprotein
profiles, as well as insulin and glucose metabolism (Bijnen et al,
1994). The benefits of physical activity in the prevention and treatment
of other chronic diseases and conditions, in particular osteoporosis,
hypertension, and obesity, are also gaining acceptance.

Unhealthy Diet/ Nutrition. The leading
risk factor for death and disability in the United States is suboptimal diet
quality, which in 2010 led to 678 000 annual deaths attributable to all causes
(Mozaffarian et al, 2016). Most of us have unhealthy diet
with insufficient intakes of fruits, nuts/seeds, whole grains, vegetables, and
seafood, as well as excess intakes of sodium. Studies show that between 2003 to
2012, there is progress in diet quality here in the United States including
increase whole grain intake and reduction of sugar-sweetened beverages. The
prevalence of ideal levels of diet (healthy diet score >80) increased from
0.2% to 0.6% in children and from 0.7% to 1.5% in adults.

Smoking/Tobacco Use. Almost one third of
coronary heart disease deaths are attributable to smoking or tobacco use and
exposure to secondhand smoke. Electronic cigarettes are now being used as the
cigarette substitute because of its claimed as less harmful that the
conventional cigarettes. Public health experts are concerned that although e-cigarettes
are thought to have a lower risk of harmful effects than conventional
cigarettes, they may be a gateway to smoking traditional cigarettes or may
promote relapse among former smokers, which could erode gains in the public’s
awareness of the harms of tobacco products (Mozaffarian
et al, 2016).

Most
cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioral risk factors
such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity, and
harmful use of alcohol. The effects of behavioral risk factors may show up in
individuals as raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, raised blood
lipids, and overweight and obesity. These “intermediate risks factors” can be
measured in primary care facilities and indicate an increased risk of developing
a heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other complications. Other
determinants of CVDs include poverty/ low socioeconomic position, stress and
hereditary factors.

Behavioral, Social
and Environmental Causes of Heart Disease

 

 

 

 

Heart disease is the leading
cause of death for people of most racial/ethnic groups in the United
States, including African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. For Asian Americans
or Pacific Islanders and American Indians or Alaska Natives, heart disease is
second only to cancer according to Centers for Disease and
Control Prevention (CDC, 2017). About 630,000 Americans die from heart
disease each year—that’s 1 in every 4
deaths. More
than half of the deaths due to heart
disease in 2009 were in men. In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 40 seconds. Each minute, more
than one person in the United States dies from a heart disease-related event. Heart
disease costs the United States about $200
billion each year. This total includes the cost of health
care services, medications, and lost productivity. According to CDC, the
morbidity rate in adults with diagnosed of heart disease is 28.4 million, 11%
of statistics in the United States. World Health Organization (WHO, 2017)
reported that an estimated 17.7 million people
died from Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) in 2015, representing 31% of all
global deaths. Of these deaths, an estimated 7.4 million were due to coronary heart
disease and 6.7 million were due to stroke. Over three quarters of CVD deaths
take place in low- and middle-income countries. Research
of Wilson et al, 1998 concluded that guidelines of blood pressure, total
cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol effectively predict CHD risk in a middle-aged
white population sample. A simple coronary disease prediction algorithm was
developed using categorical variables, which allows physicians to predict
multivariate CHD risk in patients without overt CHD.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a
disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary
arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. If the flow of oxygen-rich blood
to your heart muscle is reduced or blocked, angina or a heart attack can occur. Angina is chest pain or
discomfort. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The pain also
can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. Angina pain may even
feel like indigestion. A heart attack occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood
to a section of heart muscle is cut off. If blood flow isn’t restored quickly,
the section of heart muscle begins to die. Without quick treatment, a heart
attack can lead to serious health problems or death (NIH, 2017).

            What
is Heart Disease? Heart and blood vessel disease
which includes numerous problems, many of which are related to a process called
atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a
condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls
of the arteries. This buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood
to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can stop the blood flow. This can
cause a heart attack or stroke (AHA, 2017).