Due As mentioned in Chapter 17 in Domestic Terrorism

Due to DHSs’ recent inauguration
the agency has to deal with many “21 century” issues such future challenges are
coordination/management, cyber security, and immigration. Homeland security is
relatively new agency whose responsibilities span across multiple agencies
making it difficult for coordination. As mentioned in Chapter 17 in Domestic Terrorism and Homeland Security the
most difficult procedure in the analysis process is the execution of strategy
to make sure national policies are being managed effectively. This problem
stems from the lack of unity and the agency being scattered due to its diverse
responsibilities, another issue is juggling the private industry with the
government defense contracts and expansion into homeland security. Similar to
the recession of 2008 when the banks were on the verge of failing, homeland
security may face a similar threat if private corporations and the private
sector became responsible for homeland security. Solution to the DHS management
issue to create intra-agency policy to make it work as a unit and to achieve
this requires more authority to main service mechanisms that ensure directives
are being executed.

challenge presented before the DHS is cybersecurity. This is already an ongoing
issue but will most definitely be exacerbated in the future as networks strengthen
–thus weakening the ability to monitor it. Since cyberterrorism is the most
recent form of terrorist attack methods the necessity for it to be on DHS watch
list is imperative due to the fact that foreign entities will always pose a
threat in the cyber realm. The most recent example in 2014 when the US Senate
Armed Services Committee claimed that China had successfully hacked US defense
contractors over 20 times and in 2016 when Russia was thought to have influenced
the election according to Chapter 8 in the Cybersecurity
and Critical Infrastructure Protection. After the passing of the
Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA),
which essentially facilitates the transfer of information between public and
private sectors, the DHS should be better equipped to handle. Policymakers
should must for more collaboration and information sharing in the cyber world,
due to its ‘recent’ exposure cyber information is still tricking its way to
many different agencies which all have different responsibilities and agenda
when monitoring the web. For example piracy and counterfeit entities on the
Internet are of different priority and should be sorted according as compared
to espionage and threats to the state.

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challenge that is relatively recent and is steadily growing is the immigration
control crisis. This is a grey area since legislature is present but the
enforcement is often swayed depending on the executive branch. With DACA and
UAC in play it puts DHS in a tough spot since it may manifest into a humanitarian
movement or law enforcement issue. In order to combat this issue the
administration should strengthen local police and states to enforce immigration
laws in addition to expanding current laws to facilitate immigration officers
to rapidly remove illegal immigrants. One of the core issues with this dilemma
is that many illegal immigrants over stay there visa which can be remedied by
court hearings and introduction of GPS tracking bracelets to ensure that visa
holders know that they cannot overstay their visa.

            My black
swan event has some Hollywood themes nonetheless is plausible. The scenario is
an attack on the US infrastructure, especially communications via hacking. The
perpetrators have launched a communications EMP that has shut down the
communication grid including radio in the state of Indiana. How will local,
state, and the federal government collaborate to eliminate the threat? First
the EM managers after previously doing routine procedure with localities can
rely on local governments to inform their communities of the situation. This
reliance is based primarily on the Urban
Area Security Initiative grant to help states prepare and enhance security
for situations like this one. Prior to chaos ensuing the National Guard is
deployed under title10 to keep law and order. The DHS can utilize the National Cyber security Protection System and
collaborate with others across the continuum to find source of the attacks.
Fusion center in the Midwest can aid in the information gathering and sharing
across agencies to readily analyze information in addition to help coordinate
between agency responsibilities to avoid another Katrina.





Prior to 9/11 our borders including
airports were much more accessible that today. 
The immigration process as well as the ports of entry were much more
accessible in regards to the visa process and airport security. The three major
agencies in the DHA responsible for securing the border and immigration are
Customs and Border Protection, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and US
Coast Guard.  Customs and Border
Protection mission is to protect the American people from hostile people and
material on the borders and ports of entry. Their scope ranges from preventing
illegal immigration to preventing diseases and other harmful pests. The CBP has
many programs including air/marine patrols, secure border initiative, secure
freight initiative, container security initiative, immigration inspection
program, and US-VISIT program. CBP mainly is to protect the physical border and
ports of entry against harmful people or substances that may cause harm to the
American people while encouraging free trade simultaneously. For example if you
are bringing cocaine or smuggling people or biological weapons into the U.S.
the CBP is the agency to intervene.  The
Immigration and Customs Enforcement or ICE is the largest investigate unit in
DHS and its mission is to enforce immigration and trade laws via investigating
of people and activities. Their programs Homeland Security Investigations (HSI)
and Enforcement Removal Operations (ERO) deal with removing illegal weapons and
people from the homeland. Recently they have been in the spotlight regarding
DACA and the removal of illegal immigrants south of the border, which falls
under the Enforcement Removal Operations. The U.S. Coast Guard deals with
maritime responsibility and keeping our ports and waters clear of illegal
drugs, weapons, contraband etc. The Coast Guard is an interesting case because
in addition to heir border security and immigration role they play a big part
in search and rescue and act as the “lifeguards” of the U.S. water ways.


A challenge in border security policy currently is with
illegal immigrants regarding DACA. Previously Obama had enacted DACA and is now
be dealt with by Trump, is a big complication in border security. The enactment
of DACA gives illegals an inventive to cross the border illegally since they know
their offspring will be U.S. citizens. The challenge already is to keep the
border secure but with an incentive that incentives illegal to cross is just
creating additional problems for us. The dreamers may eventually become
citizens but have lived here without the same responsibility of law-abiding tax
paying citizens that literally pay for the right to enjoy American
freedom.  Another challenge regarding UAC
is the fact that they are being housed in U.S. UAC should be treated just like
any other illegal item coming into the U.S., due to the fact that they are on
U.S. soil for a good amount of time to spread communicable diseases or commit
crime it not fair to U.S. citizens for having to bear the consequences of their
actions.  As one may view it as a humanitarian
crisis, it is not the U.S. responsibility to take the burden of failed
governments, these consequences manifest into disease and possible terrorists.
Since we tightened security at other ports of entry such as airports via
pre-screening and customs for legal legitimate travelers, it should be even
more tightened for illegals on the border. Another challenge regarding immigration
is the non-enforcement of immigration policy, there putting ICE employees and
other agencies on hold in addition to the sanctuary counties that decline
federal request to hold an arrestee. I find it absurd that the whole point of
these institutions is to uphold justice and maintain the peace while they are
holding illegals in their jails. At the end of the day that sanctuary country
will suffer the consequence via possible disease or illegal contraband brought
in by the illegal which if not contained will leak into the mainland. The
agencies responsible to solve these challenges are mainly ICE since Customs and
Border Protections and Coast Guard mainly do not do investigating, more so with
people/things out and not so much with removal of illegals already inside the
homeland. ICE often pairing with FBI, works to remove criminal illegal aliens
that have entered the U.S. illegally. The use of this agency to solve these
challenges will see a decline of pressure (physically and fiscally) put on
communities that house these illegals.


In this case study regarding UAC and DACA the governments
most efficient method of resolving this issue is via ICE and the removal of all
aliens. It is quite simple actually, since they do not have documentation, and
are against the law it is illegal for them to present in the U.S. Some may
argue from a humanitarian perspective but do not realize at the end of the day
U.S. citizens will suffer the consequences in the based on the DHS statistic
about 7.5% of illegals quality as “criminal aliens”. In addition by not
removing illegals we are encouraging smugglers to make a business out
transporting people, further increasing crime stats in multiple countries.






Health care organization and
facilities are called into action whenever there is a threat to the public.
Whether that be in the form natural disaster or terrorist attack, ultimately
all people directly affected by the threat will go through some health care
system. In the time of emergency health care systems have the responsibility to
prevent epidemics and spread of disease, protect against environmental hazards,
prevent injuries, and ensuring quality and accessibility of health
services.  As you can see all these
responsibly already apply to health care networks regardless of disaster but at
a time of need when there is overcrowding, no insurance, biological threat
etc.  the ability of these systems are
strained due to the overload and undertraining of medical staff. In terms of
preparedness planning healthcare entities can call upon federal emergency
medical assets and federal funding for public health infrastructure. In the
event of a bioterrorist attack more than 20 agencies play a role but mostly DHS
and DHHS. States and local governments utilize the National Health Security
Strategy created by the DHS and DHHS in regards to public health preparedness
and response at the event of a biological attack. The strategy focuses on
biomedical research to develop vaccines, enhance medical capacity use via
mobile medical assets such as mobile clinics, federal facilities, and grants to
states and local to further improve public health security and enhance the
vaccine/drugs available. States and local governments are given grants to
monetarily defend against attack with $1 billion annually going to large
metropolitan area such as NY, Chicago, LA, Washington etc. which ends going
towards epidemiology capacity , laboratory capacity, health alert networks,
education , and hospital preparedness. In the case of an intentional anthrax or
smallpox release public health would initiate security staffing at department
facilities, control building access, and monitor emergency communications. The
tools/assets at their disposable would mainly be in the form of grants from the
federal government to facilitate the distribution of hazmat suits, vaccines,
and other precautionary materials in addition to proactively educate the
community against the disease. Also utilizing the FDA, National Institute of health,
health resources and services administration to increase cross agency
collaboration to carry out responsibilities related to bioterrorism and public
health emergency such as research of biological and chemical weapons and
intelligence gathering more efficiently; in addition public health will be
working with the DHS, DHHS, and the private sector in coordinating emergency
preparedness and consolidated action plans respective to the community that
help prevent the further the  spread of
the disease.