In and critical discourse analysis 2.1 Discourse Discourse is

In this chapter, the reviews of literature on theoretical and conceptual background have shown which includes the theoretical background of the study and the brief explication of major concepts such as discourse, discourse event, discourse and power, political discourse, discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis

2.1       Discourse

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Discourse is anything beyond a sentence it may be called a discursive formation which is basically communication both written and spoken, a discourse may have many interpretations of meaning in accordance to its context. Van Dijk (1997) maintains discourse is spoken from of language used for speeches and sharing of ideas and thoughts. According to Van Dijk (1989) in relation to discourse studies the term discourse is used for a particular type of language used and a type of social interaction and social communication such as interviews, speeches, letters, diaries and contracts etc. (Van Dijk 1981)

Van Dijk says discourse studies are “an alysts…want to include some other essential components such as who uses language, how, why and when”  thus according to him this is what differentiates discourse from grammar studies as discourse goes beyond syntax of language although they may interconnect at some places. Discourse focuses on the context, the grammatical structures, linguistic and literary devices used, presentation manner and the interactional traits (Van Dijk) He explains three major magnitudes of discourse as “language use; 2) the communication of believes (cognition); and 3) interactions in social situations” Discourse tries to explicate the relation between language, beliefs and social interactions and thus explores the dimensions of society, cognition and perception.

Discourse is a tool which has immense power that has the potential to influence, inspire and manipulate people which may or may not always be detectable. Therefore, when analyzing a political piece of work one must look into all aspects of the text to detect whether or not it is used for the right purpose or not or if it is being used to create unrest, conspiracy and propaganda.

2.2       Discourse event:

According to Norman Fairclough (1989, 1995) for every discourse events there are three sides the first is the text itself, then the interpretation and practice of the production of discourse which is a social practice in itself. Fairclough gave a three-dimensional framework to analyze the relationship between text and social practices (Fairclough 1995) in respect to this framework a text is inclusive of some social actions, social relations and identities.

2.3       Discourse and Power

 ‘Power is everywhere’, diffused and embodied in discourse, knowledge and ‘regimes of truth’ (Foucault 1991).The power related to discourse refers particularly to social power which is understood as the relationship between groups. Power is a crucial element that needs to be taken into account when referring to discourse since dominant groups will certainly have more control over the weaker ones( Van Dijk,1997) he says that a powerful group needs apart from discourse specific sources that can be summed up into socio-economic, legal or political power to dominate other groups.

According to Van Dijk Discourse is a powerful tool that can influence people without them being aware of the potential consequences hence the abuse of power presents many problems because it can be late human and social rights of people.

2.4       Political Discourse

Political discourse a sub class of a discourse which may be supported on two levels: purposeful thematic. The political speeches square measure the results of politics created traditionally by politicians and it is traditionally and culturally determined. It thematic within the sense that topics square measure in the main connected with political activities, ideas and acts Fairclough (1995). Political activities, acts and speeches embody several ways and techniques to push the ideologies of the speaker. These techniques square measure vital to grasp, so as to urge clear understanding of the political discourse. One in all the ways is rhetoric strategy in political speeches that is that the art of speaking in the main utilized in political speeches.

2.5       Discourse analysis:

Discourse analysis is a flexible term which is dependent on the epistemological framework being applied on it. Discourse analysis can be defined as a cross discipline which has contribution from many established disciplines. (Fairclough, 1989 language and power)

2.6       Critical Discourse Analysis

Critical discourse Analysis is a knowledge domain approach to review language use as social follow. CDA aims to own a crucial approach to discourse analysis amplified by the linguistic and social analysis Van Dijik (1993). The foremost problems that CDA focuses on are the power relations, dominance, inequality and the way social power abuse are enacted, resisted and reproduced by the text and talk in social and political context.

According to Van Dijik (1993) CDA may be a paradigm that is characterized in deciphering the ideologies and power through organized analysis of language. The task of CDA is to consistently investigate the relation between the structures of the discourse and therefore the structures of ideologies. CDA additionally focuses on however socio-political discourse manipulates, propagates, persuades and presents the ability relation in an exceedingly society through political discourses. Hence, closing the discourse-power circle, finally this suggests in gift study to grasp however those teams World Health Organization management most important discourse, even have additional probabilities to regulate the minds and actions of others.

There are several reasons for learning Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). One of them is taking it as associate degree interest in social and cultural problems, and the way these problems have an effect on society. One more reason is that Critical Discourse analysis (CDA) permits you to appear at topics during which you’ve got a correct trust. Finally, viewing CDA in additional depth can offer you newer tools with that to review language, not simply academically, however in daily life too, for instance, once reading newspapers or magazines, or looking the news. It’s going to be capable to reinforce you vision.

 Critical discourse analysis (CDA) additionally seeks to look at language as a variety of cultural and social observe, associate degreed is an approach that permits the outline and interpretation of social life because it is diagrammatical in speech and texts. CDA focuses significantly on the link between power and discourse, learning the method during which “social power abuse, dominance, and difference area unit enacted, reproduced, and resisted by the text and speak within the social and political context” (Van Dijk, 2001). The essential approach to discourse aims to challenge social orders and observe that we tend to settle for as ‘natural’, however that area unit, in fact, “naturalized”. In casting light on this method, Critical discourse analysts ask for to create visible the “common-sense” social and cultural assumptions (0r ideologies) that, below the extent of acutely aware awareness, area unit embedded altogether varieties of language that folks use (Fairclough, 2001).Fairclough and Wodak (1997) group the main principles of CDA as follows:

1. CDA addresses social problems

2. Power relations are discursive

3. Discourse Constitutes Society and Culture

4. Discourse does ideological work

5. Discourse is historical

6. The link between text and society is mediated

7. Discourse analysis is interpretative and explanatory

8. Discourse is a form of social action

2.7       Scope of Critical Discourse Analysis

The scope of CDA can be analyzed based on Fairclough and Wodak (1997), Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a fast growing vicinity of language. It views discourse as ‘a shape of social practice’ and takes attention of the context of language use to be critical to discourse (Wodak, 2001, stated in Wang, 2006). It is especially inquisitive about the relation among language and power. CDA can be described as Neo-Marxist; claiming that cultural and financial scopes are critical in the generation and upkeep of power members of the family. It is also agreed that CDA cannot be organized as a single method however is as a substitute seemed as an approach, which includes extraordinary perspectives and special strategies for analyzing the connection between using language and social context (Wang, 2006)

2.8       Political Discourse Analysis

Political discourse analysis. as this study aims to analyses speeches of a political nature, it is  essential to introduce some necessary data regarding the definition of political discourse analysis and the way political speeches and even texts are often analyzed, taking into thought that analyzing political texts is dubbed in linguistic literature as political discourse analysis (henceforth: PDA). As claimed by Van Dijk (1998), PDA focuses on the analysis of “political discourse”. He states that PDA is regarding both political discourse, and it’s additionally thought to be an essential enterprise. What is necessary here, is to state that within the spirit of up to date approaches in CDA; this is able to mean that critical-political discourse analysis deals particularly with the copy of political power, power abuse, or domination through political discourse. As per Fairclough’s (1995) and Van Dijk’s (1993), such an analysis deals with the discursive conditions and consequences of social and political difference that results from such domination. Additionally, one in all the observations that must be created regarding political discourse is that it is not a genre, however a category of genres outlined by a social domain, specifically that of politics (Van Dijk, 1998).

 

 

2.9       Fairclough’s Framework of CDA

The followers of CDA attempt to achieve in CDA what Batstone (1995) defines as a try to reveal how particular texts and constructed in such a manner that specific perspectives are expressed in a delicate and covert manner; because they are covert, they are elusive of direct challenge. In general CDA attempts to deconstruct overt ideas which are otherwise hidden in the text. Thus we can say that CDA is a prospective and tool for the analyses of political speeches delivered by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Concerning to the main principles and themes it is possible to lay out the main strategies and policies used by Jinnah in order to get his particular audience believe in his words, ideas, opinion, ideologies and diplomatic solutions. To achieve this it is imperative to consider the three stages of CDA given by Fairclough (1989) to result in a complete and comprehensive understanding of the important speeches representing the governor’s policy on various critical subjects. The stages are reflected in the three dimensional method of discourse analysis given by Fairclough law (1995) that is the first stage description which is the formal properties of the text. Second stage interpretation stage which is related with the relationship between text and interaction and the third stage the explanation stage which is concerned with the relationship between interaction and social context. Hence we make consider that are conceptual basis is adapted from the framework of Fairclough is based on discourse and power. The research attempts to link power, discourse and how the definition of power can be achieved or revealed through pronominal features. Ultimately this thesis aims to analyze the possible interrelatedness of textual properties all features and power relations which are also and append in facts on conceptual framework.

 

 

 

 

TEXT
(Written/Spoken)

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                         DESCRIPTION                          

 

INTERACTION (Processes of (re) production and Consumption of text)

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                        INTERPRETATION

 

 

CONTEXT (Socio-cultural, economic, political and environmental conditions of production and interpretation.

 

 

 

 

                                                        EXPLANATION

Figure 1. Fairclough’s Dimensions of Discourse and Discourse Analysis

 

2.10     CDA of Speeches (Related Studies)

Speech is outlined as a vocalized kind of human communication. The wonderful truth that individuals have the power to specific thoughts and data by the articulation of sounds is far and away one in every of the simple evidences that individuals twenty two ar distinctive among all God’s creation. Naturally, humans interact in speech activities in numerous context daily. as an example, reception with family and friends, or is also in their operating zones, folks use their most popular selection of codes, languages designs and dialects relying in fact on their orientation of language.

In this study, I have used the presidential speeches delivered by Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah These speeches were delivered on different issues and were particularly anchored on the various situations and events. Fundamentally, as it is observed most of the presidential speeches fall the category of monologue kind of speech. The term monologue is derived from the Greek etymology which means ‘speaking alone.’  Sankey (2000)

There are very few researches in critical discourse analysis which essentially focus on presidential speeches. One of which is a study conducted by Wang (2010) entitled, “Critical Discourse Analysis of Barack Obama’s speeches”. This research was focused on Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) theory and the Systematic Functional Linguistics (SFL), which the researcher used to analyze Obama’s speeches mainly focusing on the points of modalit, transitivity and the language used. The result of the study was as follows (1) Obama made use of simple words and short sentences. (2) The transitivity shows what the government has achieved (3) The morality reference to the speaker’s attitudes and opinions about the truth of preposition expressed in a sentence Obama has made the audience feel at ease and understand and accept him by the use of modal verbs tense and first person pronouns and lastly (4) He uses simple present tense to deliver a domestic and worldwide situation which ranges from politics, economics and culture. The use of first person pronouns and his religious belief Barack Obama successfully remove the gap between himself and the audience which as a result helps Obama persuade the audience and the public to support the policies of Administration

Wang’s (2010) study is similar to this present study in term of its scope however, it differs on the matter of speaker, subject, corpus and the setting of the study which has been used for the analysis in the current study I have made use of speeches of Pakistan’s president Jinnah while Wang (2010) uses the speeches of American president Barack Obama.

Another study “Ideology and Political Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Erdogan’s Political Speech” by Fatih Bayram (2010) is based on Fairclough (2000) statement “A successful leader’s communicative style is not simply what makes him or her attractive to voters in a general way; it conveys certain values which can powerfully enhance the political message”. This paper specifically analyses discourse of political speech, namely the short speech of the Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan during a debate with Israel s president, Shimon Peres, in the World Economic Forum in Davos in 2009. It discusses the philosophical element and linguistic background enshrined within the Turkish Prime Minister’s speech throughout a discussion. The result’s in line with Fairclough’s notions of ideology residing in text which “ideology invests language in varied ways in which at varied levels” which ideology is each “property of structures and of events”. Despite serious criticisms, Erdogan has maintained his background throughout his political time in government, even within the recent Davos discussion, wherever he used language as a strong social tool to gift his characteristics. His perspective and linguistic behavior were the reflection of a specific group, and therefore the perspective of this explicit cluster towards him was positive. Our attitudes to language area unit considerably necessary, and our perceptions of the characteristics of someone or a group is also influenced by these attitudes. Associate degree awareness of language attitudes, thus, might not solely facilitate one perceive himself and his talents higher inside a society, however additionally facilitate him assess others and their influence a lot of properly.

Another study by Fawwaz Al-Abed Al-Haq and Nazek Mahmoud Al-Sleibi (2015) entitled “A Critical Discourse Analysis of Three Speeches of King Abdullah II”. They aim  to determine the main linguistic strategies that King Abdullah II uses in his speeches.At the first level,3 speeches were investigated, using the main principles of CDA, which are the descriptions of the text, discourse-as-discursive practice, and discourse-as-social-practice.As for the findings, the study finds out that King Abdullah uses these strategies competently in terms of employing them to deliver his messages.As regards reference, he focuses on the use of the pronouns of the first speaker (we, our, and I) in order to highlight his core issues.These issues include the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, the American role in this peace process, and the call for international community to work together against the potential dangers.Besides, he uses intertextuality in order to convince American audience about his ideas through resorting to an extract from one of the American presidents.He uses the creative expressions to show the reality as it is, i.e., the bad image of the current state of affair and the potential good image of the future.In addition, he uses circumlocution to highlight and magnify certain issues.These strategies are considered as creativity, reference, circumlocution, and intertextuality.The machinery, a two-level analysis has been attempted in an integrated manner.