Introduction of time, the ocean disposal of municipal sewage


Mankind tends to consider the ocean as a convenient
and limitless sink for waste. The waste disposal of different types of
hazardous and deleterious substances has grown very rapidly. With the passage
of time, the ocean disposal of municipal sewage has taken place, primarily into
rivers and then estuaries that eventually emptied its mass into the ocean. Many
countries continue to use the ocean as an ongoing depository for wastes
generated within their borders. When municipal solid wastes are included in the
total amount of pollution generated by humans it will eventually find their way
into the ocean, termed as “ocean dumping”.

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Fate of Alkyl phenol ethoxylates in marine animals

Alkyl phenol ethoxylates have a broad range of usage
in the market of surfactants; these surfactants used in both at industrial and
domestic level.  APEs could be used in
detergents, wetting agents, emulsifier, foaming agent and have
absolute application in executional processes like pulp and paper makings.
These chemical compounds can be easily detectable in the discharges of
municipal sewage and in waste water treatment tributaries. The breakdown of
such compound introduce clan of smaller compounds which have a shorter chains
of alkylphonols and these compounds are more withstanding to the environment.
The emerging concern regarding these chemicals are their resilience and their
mimicry nature towards the natural hormones. They tend to block the natural
system of hormones and causes a large variety of disturbance in marine animal’s
life.  These surfactants have a large
proportion in the discharges of municipal sewage which is sufficient to effect
the marine life present in the oceans. They could termed as endocrinal
disruptors for the wildlife present in oceans because they block the pathway of
estrogen hormones. The high concentration could be a result in decreased
incidence of reproduction leading to decreased amount of marine biota. Ying, G. G. et
al. (2002).


Sodium hypochlorite_____
Disinfectant OR Genotoxicant?

Sodium hypochlorite also known as disinfectant has
its proportion in municipal sewage. It is also used in power stations for
cooling the systems which are in operations. The recent studies shows that
there might be possible chance of the harmful effects of this chemical on the
marine biotic life. It have a potential of producing in vivo genotoxicity to
marine animals.studies shows that the embryo–larvae of P. dumerilii have the
same behavior as the oyster in pacific ocean and are sensitive to contamination
of these chemicals(Hutchinson.,etal

It is also used as a disinfectant to sanitize the
municipal waste water before sending it into the coastal and other water body.
Leonard, A. (1991).

There is an appraisal that Canada has 400 waste
water treatment plants of municipal sewage which are ejecting effluents of
these chemical to aquatic system and several power consuming equipment’s use
chlorination to intercept the befouling. (Moore.,et al. 1997)

These disinfectant disrupt the function of normal
development of marine animals such as marine
polychaete (Platynereis dumerilii)   and poor or improper development of fetus of
marine mammals and also other genotoxic effects (Wurgler.,
etal 1992).