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DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
COVENANT UNIVERSITY, CANNANLAND OTA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA.
PET327: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY
                              EXPERIMENT IV: pH
GROUP D
                        IGBINEDION UYIOSA DANIEL
15CN03260
DATE PERFORMED: 26-01-2018
DATE SUBMITTED: 28-01-2018

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ABSTRACT

The drilling fluid carries out a number of functions during drilling operations which sees to the successful, safe and cost efficient completion of such drilling operation. Many properties of the mud are monitored to ensure such properties are at optimum values. One of such properties is the Ph of the mud which is the concentration of hydrogen ions in the mud. The optimum control of some mud systems is based on ph, as in the detection and treatment of certain contaminants. Also, ph control is important for the maintenance of lime-treated muds, mitigation od corrosion and effective use of thinners. Two methods of determining the ph of a drilling mud are discussed in this report. Experiments are carried out on mud samples with different compositions and the ph values presented. 

                

               TABLE OF CONTENT
Content page 

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………2
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………4
 APPARTUS……………………….………………………………………………………….5
PROCEDURES……………………………………………………………………………….5-6
PRECAUTIONS …………………………….…………………………………………………6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ………………………………………………………….7
CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………………………………………8
REFERENCE…………………………………………………………………………………..8

INTRODUCTION
Defined as the negative logarithm to the base 10 of the hydrogen-ion concentration, ph units decrease with increasing acidity by a factor of 10. Each drilling mud additive has a resulting effect on the overall ph of the mud.  For example, mud made with bentonite and fresh water, will have a ph of 8 to 9, contamination by cement will raise the ph to 10 to 11 and treatment with an acidic polyphosphate will bring the ph back to 8 to 9. The ph of a mud affects the viscosity of the mud which in turn affects the ability of the mud to efficiently clean the hole. Appropriate mud ph also reduces wellbore problems e.g. for minimizing shale problems, a ph of 8.5 to 9.5 appears to give the best hole stability and control over mud properties. Ph is the logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration in gram moles per liter. Ph can either be determined using the colorimetric method or the electrometric method, which employs the use of ph paper and ph meter respectively. The ph paper is impregnated with dyes that exhibit different colors when exposed to solutions of varying ph. The ph meter is an instrument that determines the ph of an aqueous solution by measuring the electro potential generated between a special glass electrode and a reference electrode. It consists of; a glass electrode, the reference electrode, means of amplifying the potential difference and a meter reading directly in ph units.
  

APPARATUS 

Measuring cylinder 
Weighing balance 
Ph paper 
Spatula
Ph meter
Standard color chart 
Beaker 
Electric mixer 

PROCEDURES 
           SAMPLE 1 
 

Measure 35g of bentonite on the weighing balance 
Measure 350ml of water using the measuring cylinder 
Mix thoroughly using the electric mixer to get a homogenous mixture 
Tear off and place a short strip of ph paper on the surface of the mixture. 
After the color of the paper stabilizes, the color of the upper side of the paper that has not contacted the mud, is matched against the standard color chart on the side of the dispenser. 
Determine ph using ph meter 
Push the on/off key to turn the meter on 
Push the ph/mv key until the annunciators indicate the desired mode 
Place the glass probe into the mud sample and wait for seconds to get the readings from the meter 
Temperature compensation can be set manually by the temperature adjustment over a range of 0 degrees to 100 degrees 
Rinse the probe with distilled water and immerse the probe into the solution to be measured. Allow 60 to 90 seconds for the readings to stabilize 

SAMPLE 2  

Measure 35g of bentonite on the weighing balance 
Measure 350ml of water using the measuring cylinder 
Measure 4g of CaCl2 and add to the water and bentonite and mix thoroughly 
Repeat procedures 4-11 from sample 1 

PRECAUTION 

I ensured I did not stick the ph paper into the fluid sample 
I ensured I never let the probe tip become dry 
I ensured that the electrode was always covered with the cap when not in use

RESULT 

 

DISCUSSION 
The result of the experiment carried out has been presented in the table above. Sample 1 which was a mixture of distilled water and bentonite gave a ph reading of 9 using the ph paper and a more accurate reading of 9.24 using the ph meter. Sample 1 has an alkaline ph which makes it therefore suitable for drilling. Sample 2 on the other hand which was a mixture of distilled water, bentonite and cacl2 salt gave a ph reading of 7 using the ph paper and a more accurate reading of 7.31 using the ph meter. This shows the effect of salt contamination on the ph of drilling muds. Calcium salts cause a significant reduction in the ph of drilling muds which also affects the viscosity of the mud. 

   CONCLUSION 
Ph control is important for optimizing drilling mud properties and the effectiveness of a drilling mud is affected by the ph of the mud. The electrometric method ph meter of determining ph gives a more precise and accurate ph reading than the colorimetric method ph paper. The experiment carried out showed the effect of salt contamination on the ph of a drilling mud and highlights the importance of ph control. 

    REFERENCES 

Petroleum engineering drilling mud manual by Engr. Seteyeobot Ifeanyi et al 
PET 315: drilling fluid technology note by Engr. Dr. E. E. Okoro