Physiology inner bone of the forearm; these loops flow

Physiology and Embryology and Fingerprint
Patterns and Classification

Fingerprint is
described as an impression or mark made on a surface by a person’s fingertip,
which serve as a purpose of identifying individuals from the unique pattern.
Chapter three, Physiology and Embryology,
has discussed on the anatomy and physiology of the friction ridge skin form the
basis for several critical elements of fingerprinting. Chapter four, Fingerprint Patterns and Classification,
has discussed ways type of fingerprint pattern, their components, and methods
to identify them. The purpose of this writing is to discuss three subtopics of
chapter three and chapter four. They are entitled Layer of the Skin, Embryological
Development of Friction Ridges, Permanence, Loops, Whorls, and Arches. 

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Layer of the Skin

The skin is comprised of 3 anatomical:
epidermis (inner layer), dermis (outer layer), and hypodermis. The epidermis
has 5 stratum layer: corneum (layer we see and composed of Keratinocytes),
lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, and basale ( plays a role in friction
ridges).the dermis contains sweat glands, blood vessels, and nerve ending. The
dermal papillae, found in the dermis, transport nutrient between dermis and epidermis.
Hypodermis contains fatty cells that contour the body and serve as an emery
reserve. Each layers work together to perform different function of the skin such
as homeostasis and excretory.                                               

                                   
Embryological Development of Friction Ridges

  Additionally, the formation of friction
ridges is important for the development of skin. Fiction Ridges can be found on
our fingers, the sole of our feet, and palms. The development process of the
friction ridges begins between the 6th- 25th week of the fetal development. The
three important process that play a role are cell growth, cell differentiation,
and morphongensis. While the volar pads recede, friction ridges is form in
Basal layer. The divide by the process of mitosis. The cells then located them
cells in the various epidermal layer, where the shed and replaced by cells.                               

Permanence

The formation of finger ridges of skin is
related to the permanence. The permanence means that finger ridges skin,
consists of individual characteristics such ridges endings bifurcations, dots,
and many ridges shape variances, make never change through a person life. Even
if the friction ridges pattern might be damage, it will cause a scar. The scar
will help to uniqueness of the fingerprint since they may be unique in shape
and size.   

Loops

  Now that you are thinking about fingerprint
ridges, it is important to note that they form 3 patterns: arch, loop, and
whorl.  Loops are described as pattern that
illustrate 3 features: ridges entre on one side of finger, make a U-turnaround
the core, and exist out the same side. They make up approximately 60-70% of
finger pattern. They have three requirements loop pattern sufficient recurve,
one delta, and ridge count across a looping ridge. Loop has two subcategories:
radial loops (slant toward the radius, the inner bone of the forearm; these
loops flow toward the thumb and ulnar loops (slant toward the ulna, the outer
bone of the forearm). Additionally, loops are further characteristized by their
ridges counts.   The FBI’s Fingerprint
Training Manual provides information on how to “count” ridges.   

Whorl

 The
Whorl is a circular pattern which illustrate a complete circuit around a
central core. They make up 30-35% of fingerprints. The requirement of whorl at
least two deltas and a sufficient recurve in front of each delta. There are
four subcategories of whorls: plain whorls ( a line from delta to delta cuts
through several recurving ridges), double-loop whorls (comprised of  with two distinct shoulders), central pocket
loop whorls ( a line from delta to delta does not cut through a recurving ridge),and
accidentals (any combination of two distinct pattern types).Whorls are further
characterized by whorl tracing, or following a friction ridge path from the
left delta to a place opposite the right delta. Through the process of tracing,
whorls can be classified as inner (I, three or more ridges inside the right
delta), meet (M, one or two ridges either inside or outside the right delta, or
if the tracing stops on the right delta itself, or outer (O, three or more
ridges outside the right delta).           

Arches

A fingerprint arch where the friction ridges
enter one side of the fingerprint, make a rise in the center, and exit out the
other side of the print. The make up approximately 5% of fingerprints in the general
population.  The arches are comprised of
no deltas in and a core which is indistinct. There are two types of arches:
plain arches (does not have looping ridges, recurves, or ridges angular to the
wave pattern) and tented arches (contain one or more ridges at an angle to the
flow of the arch, often perpendicular to the ridges at the base of the print;
it can comprised of either an angle, an up thrust or two of the three basic
characteristics of the loop) .   

The purpose of this writing is to discuss
three subtopics of chapter three and chapter four. They are entitled Layer of the Skin, Embryological Development of Friction Ridges, Permanence, Loops,
Whorls, and Arches. The skin is comprised of 3 anatomical: epidermis,
dermis, and hypodermis. They help lay
the foundation for the development of fingerprint ridges. The fingerprint
ridges forms of 3 pattern: arch, loop, and whorl. Due to the uniqueness of
fingerprint ridges, it contributes to permanence. These chapter illustrated the
fact that fingerprint are unique, and it plays role in crime scene
investigation.